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    Anonymous (group) хакеры VIP про них часть 1
    Anonymous (group)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article titled Timeline of events involving Anonymous. (Discuss) (August 2011)
    Anonymous

    A flag conveying symbolism associated with Anonymous. The imagery of the "suit without a head" represents leaderless organization and anonymity.[1]

    Individuals appearing in public as Anonymous, wearing the Guy Fawkes masks popularized by the comic book and film V for Vendetta.
    Formation 2003–2004
    Type Internet meme;
    Multiple-use name/avatar;
    Virtual community;
    Voluntary association
    Purpose/focus Entertainment;
    Internet activism;
    Internet trolling;
    Internet vigilantism
    Region served Global
    Membership Decentralized affinity group
    Anonymous (used as a mass noun) is a group initiating active civil disobedience and spread through the Internet while staying hidden, originating in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan, representing the concept of many online community users simultaneously existing as an anarchic, digitized global brain.[2] It is also generally considered to be a blanket term for members of certain Internet subcultures, a way to refer to the actions of people in an environment where their actual identities are not known.[3]
    In its early form, the concept has been adopted by a decentralized online community acting anonymously in a coordinated manner, usually toward a loosely self-agreed goal, and primarily focused on entertainment. Beginning with 2008, the Anonymous collective has become increasingly associated with collaborative, international hacktivism, undertaking protests and other actions, often with the goal of promoting internet freedom and freedom of speech. Actions credited to "Anonymous" are undertaken by unidentified individuals who apply the Anonymous label to themselves as attribution.[4]
    Although not necessarily tied to a single online entity, many websites are strongly associated with Anonymous. This includes notable imageboards such as 4chan, Futaba, their associated wikis, Encyclopædia Dramatica, and a number of forums.[5] After a series of controversial, widely-publicized protests and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks by Anonymous in 2008, incidents linked to its cadre members have increased.[6] In consideration of its capabilities, Anonymous has been posited by CNN to be one of the three major successors to WikiLeaks.[7]
    Contents [hide]
    1 Background
    1.1 Origins as a concept and a meme
    1.2 Iconography and aesthetics
    1.3 Online composition
    1.4 Membership
    2 Activities during 2006-07
    2.1 Habbo raids
    2.2 Hal Turner raid
    2.3 Chris Forcand arrest
    3 Activities during 2008
    3.1 Project Chanology
    3.2 Epilepsy Foundation forum invasion
    3.3 Defacement of SOHH and AllHipHop websites
    4 Activities during 2009
    4.1 No Cussing Club
    4.2 2009 Iranian election protests
    4.3 Operation Didgeridie
    5 Activities during 2010
    5.1 Operation Titstorm
    5.2 Oregon Tea Party raid
    5.3 Operations Payback, Avenge Assange, and Bradical
    5.4 Operation Leakspin
    5.5 Zimbabwe
    6 Activities during 2011
    6.1 Attack on Fine Gael website
    6.2 Arab Spring Activities
    6.3 Attack on HBGary Federal
    6.4 Purported threat against the Westboro Baptist Church
    6.5 2011 Wisconsin protests
    6.6 2011 Bank of America document release
    6.7 Operation Sony
    6.8 Spanish Police
    6.9 Supporting 2011 Indian Anti-corruption movement in cyber space
    6.10 Operation Malaysia
    6.11 Operation Orlando
    6.12 Operation Intifada
    6.13 Operation Anti-Security
    6.14 Operation Facebook
    6.15 Operation BART
    7 Reception and impact
    7.1 Media coverage
    7.1.1 KTTV Fox 11 news report
    7.1.2 Search Engine subject of focus
    7.2 Reaction from law enforcement agencies
    7.2.1 Dutch arrest
    7.2.2 United States warrants
    7.2.3 British arrests
    7.2.4 Australian arrest
    7.2.5 Spanish arrests
    7.2.6 Turkey arrests
    7.2.7 Arrests following Operation Avenge Assange
    8 See also
    9 References
    10 External links
    Background

    Origins as a concept and a meme

    An anonymous figure cosplays as Anonymous. Photographed at ROFLcon on April 26, 2008
    The name Anonymous itself is inspired by the perceived anonymity under which users post images and comments on the Internet. Usage of the term Anonymous in the sense of a shared identity began on imageboards. A tag of Anonymous is assigned to visitors who leave comments without identifying the originator of the posted content. Users of imageboards sometimes jokingly acted as if Anonymous were a real person. As the popularity of imageboards increased, the idea of Anonymous as a collective of unnamed individuals became an internet meme.[8]
    Anonymous broadly represents the concept of any and all people as an unnamed collective. As a multiple-use name, individuals who share in the "Anonymous" moniker also adopt a shared online identity, characterized as hedonistic and uninhibited. This is intended as a satirical, conscious adoption of the online disinhibition effect.[9]
    “ We [Anonymous] just happen to be a group of people on the internet who need — just kind of an outlet to do as we wish, that we wouldn't be able to do in regular society. ...That's more or less the point of it. Do as you wish. ... There's a common phrase: 'we are doing it for the lulz.' ”
    —Trent Peacock. Search Engine: The face of Anonymous, February 7, 2008.[9]
    Definitions tend to emphasize the fact that the concept, and by extension the collective of users, cannot be readily encompassed by a simple definition. Instead it is often defined by aphorisms describing perceived qualities.[2] One self-description is:
    We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us.[10]
    Iconography and aesthetics
    This section requires expansion with:
    information on Anonymous subcultural elements; common images, themes, concepts, etc.
    As a cyberculture, Anonymous aesthetics are based in various forms of shock humor, including genres of cringe, surreal, and black comedy.[9]
    Online composition
    “ [Anonymous is] the first Internet-based superconsciousness. Anonymous is a group, in the sense that a flock of birds is a group. How do you know they're a group? Because they're traveling in the same direction. At any given moment, more birds could join, leave, peel off in another direction entirely. ”
    —Chris Landers. Baltimore City Paper, April 2, 2008.[2]
    Anonymous consists largely of users from multiple imageboards and Internet forums. In addition, several wikis and Internet Relay Chat networks are maintained to overcome the limitations of traditional imageboards. These modes of communication are the means by which Anonymous protesters participating in Project Chanology communicate and organize upcoming protests.[11][12]
    A "loose coalition of Internet denizens,"[13] the group is banded together by the Internet, through sites such as 4chan,[11][13] 711chan,[11] Encyclopædia Dramatica,[14] IRC channels,[11] and YouTube.[3] Social networking services, such as Facebook, are used for the creation of groups which reach out to people to mobilize in real-world protests.[15]
    Anonymous has no leader or controlling party and relies on the collective power of its individual participants acting in such a way that the net effect benefits the group.[13] "Anyone who wants to can be Anonymous and work toward a set of goals..." a member of Anonymous explained to the Baltimore City Paper. "We have this agenda that we all agree on and we all coordinate and act, but all act independently toward it, without any want for recognition. We just want to get something that we feel is important done..."[2]
    Membership
    This section requires expansion with:
    information on revealed or former members (Gregg Housh, Barrett Brown, etc).
    According to self-ascribed members of Anonymous, membership is conditional but easily achieved, being as simple as concealing oneself while performing online activities. Conversely, the simple act of having one's identity revealed automatically removes oneself from the group.[9] Several members or former members have been interviewed or become noted for their own participation in certain Anonymous activities. Asked about the demographics of Anonymous, Commander X indicated that the common conception of Anonymous as a youth group is a misconception. "The popular impression is....skewed. There are older people, from the direction of the Chaos Computer Club – that can if needed rein in the "kids" who appear to dominate Anon Ops."
    Commander X and the Peoples' Liberation Front
    Provides interviews and videos about Anonymous.[16] Says that "we are not a terrorist organisation". In 2011, he was at the center of an investigation into Anonymous by Aaron Barr, who claimed to have identified him as a San Francisco gardener. Interviewed following the attack on HBGary Federal, Commander X revealed that while Barr suspected that he was a leader of the group, he was in his own words a "peon". However, Commander X did claim to be a skilled hacker and founding member of an allied organization, the Peoples Liberation Front (PLF). According to Commander X, Peoples Liberation Front, collective of hactivists founded in 1985, acted with AnonOps, another sub-group of Anonymous, to carry out denial-of-service attacks against government websites in Tunisia, Iran, Egypt, and Bahrain. Explaining the relationship between Anonymous and the PLF, he suggested an analogy to NATO, with the PLF being a smaller sub-group that could choose to opt-in or out of a specific project. "AnonOps and the PLF are both capable of creating huge "Internet armies". The main difference is Anon Ops moves with huge force, but very slowly because of their decision making process. The PLF moves with great speed, like a scalpel."[17]
    AnonOps
    "AnonOps," which provides communications platforms for the group. With several domain names and Twitter accounts for publicity. "From [] the beginning there has been an secret club, an aristocracy in AnonOps, deciding how operations will play out in invite-only channels."[18]
    Activities during 2006-07

    This and the following sections outline notable activities that were attributed to Anonymous either by their perpetrators or in the media.
    Habbo raids
    A popular target for organized raids by Anonymous is Habbo, a popular social networking site designed as a virtual hotel. The first major raid is known as the "Great Habbo Raid of '06," and a subsequent raid the following year is known as the "Great Habbo Raid of '07."[19] The raid actually predates and was not inspired by the news of an Alabama amusement park banning a two-year-old toddler affected by AIDS from entering the park's swimming pool.[20] Users signed up to the Habbo site dressed in avatars of a black man wearing a grey suit and an Afro hairstyle and blocked entry to the pool, declaring that it was "closed due to AIDS,"[19][21] flooding the site with internet sayings,[21] and forming swastika-like formations.[21] When the raiders were banned, they complained of racism.[21] In response, the Habbo admins often ban users with avatars matching the profile of the raiders even months after the latest raid.[citation needed]
    Hal Turner raid
    Main article: Hal Turner
    According to white supremacist radio host Hal Turner, in December 2006 and January 2007 individuals who identified themselves as Anonymous took Turner's website offline, costing him thousands of dollars in bandwidth bills. As a result, Turner sued 4chan, eBaum's World, 7chan, and other websites for copyright infringement. He lost his plea for an injunction, however, and failed to receive letters from the court, which caused the lawsuit to lapse.[22]
    Chris Forcand arrest
    On December 7, 2007, the Canada-based Toronto Sun newspaper published a report on the arrest of the alleged Internet predator Chris Forcand.[23] Forcand, 53, was charged with two counts of luring a child under the age of 14, attempt to invite sexual touching, attempted exposure, possessing a dangerous weapon, and carrying a concealed weapon.[24] The report stated that Forcand was already being tracked by "cyber-vigilantes who seek to out anyone who presents with a sexual interest in children" before police investigations commenced.[23]
    A Global Television Network report identified the group responsible for Forcand's arrest as a "self-described Internet vigilante group called Anonymous" who contacted the police after some members were "propositioned" by Forcand with "disgusting photos of himself." The report also stated that this is the first time a suspected Internet predator was arrested by the police as a result of Internet vigilantism.[25]
    Activities during 2008

    Project Chanology
    Main article: Project Chanology

    Protest by Anonymous against the practices and tax status of the Church of Scientology.
    The group gained worldwide press for Project Chanology, the protest against the Church of Scientology.[26]
    On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube.[27][28][29] The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video.[30] In response to this, Anonymous formulated Project Chanology.[31][32][33][34] Calling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, members of Project Chanology organized a series of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and black faxes to Scientology centers.[35]

    "Message to Scientology", January 21, 2008
    On January 21, 2008, individuals claiming to speak for Anonymous announced their goals and intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology," and a press release declaring a "War on Scientology" against both the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center.[34][36][37] In the press release, the group states that the attacks against the Church of Scientology will continue in order to protect the right to freedom of speech, and end what they believe to be the financial exploitation of church members.[38] A new video "Call to Action" appeared on YouTube on January 28, 2008, calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008.[39][40] On February 2, 2008, 150 people gathered outside of a Church of Scientology center in Orlando, Florida to protest the organization's practices.[41][42][43][44] Small protests were also held in Santa Barbara, California,[45] and Manchester, England.[42][46] On February 10, 2008, about 7000 people protested in more than 93 cities worldwide.[47][48] Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from V for Vendetta (who, in turn, had been influenced by Guy Fawkes), or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church.[49][50]
    Anonymous held a second wave of protests on March 15, 2008 in cities all over the world, including Boston, Dallas, Chicago, Los Angeles, London, Paris, Vancouver, Toronto, Berlin, and Dublin. The global turnout was estimated to be "between 7000 and 8000," a number similar to that of the first wave.[51] The third wave of the protests took place on April 12, 2008.[52][53] Named "Operation Reconnect," it aimed to increase awareness of the Church of Scientology's disconnection policy.[27]
    On October 17, 2008, an 18-year-old from New Jersey described himself as a member of Anonymous, and he stated that he would plead guilty to involvement in the January 2008 DDoS attacks against Church of Scientology websites.[54]
    Protests continued, and took advantage of media events such as the premiere of the Tom Cruise movie Valkyrie, where the venue was chosen in part to reduce exposure to the protests.[55]
    Epilepsy Foundation forum invasion
    Main article: Epilepsy Foundation: 2008 forum invasion
    On March 28, 2008, Wired News reported that "Internet griefers"—a slang term for people whose only interests are in harassing others[56]—assaulted an epilepsy support forum run by the Epilepsy Foundation of America.[57] JavaScript code and flashing computer animations were posted with the intention of triggering migraine headaches and seizures in photosensitive and pattern-sensitive epileptics.[57] According to Wired News, circumstantial evidence suggested that the attack was perpetrated by Anonymous users, with the initial attack posts on the epilepsy forum blaming eBaum's World. Members of the epilepsy forum claimed they had found a thread in which the attack was being planned at 7chan.org, an imageboard that has been described as a stronghold for Anonymous. The thread, like all old threads eventually do on these types of imageboards, has since cycled to deletion.[57]
    News.com.au reported that the administrators of 7chan.org had posted an open letter claiming that the attacks had been carried out by the Church of Scientology "to ruin the public opinion of Anonymous, to lessen the effect of the lawful protests against their virulent organization" under the Church's fair game policy.[56]
    Defacement of SOHH and AllHipHop websites
    Main article: SOHH: Defacement

    The second in a series of five defaced SOHH banners and headline feeders, vandalized by hackers.
    In late June 2008, users who identified themselves as Anonymous claimed responsibility for a series of attacks against the SOHH (Support Online Hip Hop) website.[58] The attack was reported to have begun in retaliation for insults made by members of SOHH's "Just Bugging Out" forum against members of Anonymous. The attack against the website took place in stages, as Anonymous users flooded the SOHH forums, which were then shut down. On June 23, 2008, the group which identified themselves as Anonymous organized DDOS attacks against the website, successfully eliminating 60% of the website's service capacity. On June 27, 2008, the hackers utilized cross-site scripting to deface the website's main page with satirical images and headlines referencing numerous racial stereotypes and slurs, and also successfully stole information from SOHH employees.[59] Following the defacement, the website was shut down by its administration. AllHipHop, an unrelated website, also had its forum raided.[58]
    Activities during 2009

    No Cussing Club
    In January 2009 members of Anonymous targeted California teen McKay Hatch who runs the No Cussing Club, a website against profanity.[60][61] As Hatch's home address, phone number, and other personal information were leaked on the internet, his family has received a lot of hate mail, lots of obscene phone calls, and even bogus pizza and pornography deliveries.[62]
    2009 Iranian election protests

    Front page of The Pirate Bay, June 20, 2009. Anonymous, together with The Pirate Bay, launched an Iranian Green Party Support site.[63]
    Main article: 2009 Iranian election protests
    Following allegations of vote rigging after the results of the June 2009 Iranian presidential election were announced, declaring Iran's incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as the winner, thousands of Iranians participated in demonstrations. Anonymous, together with The Pirate Bay and various Iranian hackers, launched an Iranian Green Party Support site called Anonymous Iran.[63] The site has drawn over 22,000 supporters world wide and allows for information exchange between the world and Iran, despite attempts by the Iranian government to censor news about the riots on the internet. The site provides resources and support to Iranians who are protesting.[64][65]
    Operation Didgeridie
    Main article: Internet censorship in Australia
    In September 2009 the group reawakened "in order to protect civil rights" after several governments began to block access to its imageboards. The blacklisting of Krautchan.net in Germany infuriated many, but the tipping point was the Australian government's plans for ISP-level censorship of the internet. The policy was spearheaded by Stephen Conroy and had been driven aggressively[66] by the Rudd Government since its election in 2007.
    Early in the evening of September 9, Anonymous took down the prime minister's website with a distributed denial-of-service attack. The site was taken offline for approximately one hour.[67] On the morning of February 10, 2010, Anonymous launched a more prepared attack codenamed "Operation Titstorm." It defaced the prime minister's website, took down the Australian Parliament House website for three days and nearly managed to take down the Department of Communications' website.[68] The Australian newspaper later reported that neither attack was considered a serious crime by information security consultants, who suggested they only had an impact because the government "knew the [second] attack was coming but was unable to stop it."[69] A cover story in Security Solutions magazine said that "[s]uch attacks should not be considered cyberterrorism to ensure its meaning is not diluted."[70]
    Activities during 2010

    Operation Titstorm
    Main article: February 2010 Australian Cyberattacks
    External videos
    Message To The Australian Government From Anonymous,[71] directed at Kevin Rudd and Seven News hours before Operation Titstorm began.[72]
    Occurred from 8 am, February 10, 2010 as a protest against the Australian Government over the forthcoming internet filtering legislation and the perceived censorship in pornography of small-breasted women (who are perceived to be under age) and female ejaculation. Hours earlier, Anonymous uploaded a video message to YouTube, addressed to Kevin Rudd, and Seven News, presenting a list of demands and threats of further action if they were not met.[72] The protest consisted of a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS) on Australian Government websites. Australian anti-censorship groups complained that the attack only hurt their cause, and Australian government members dismissed the attack and said that they would just restore the service when the attack finished.[73][74] Analysis of the attacks cited their peak bandwidth at under 17Mbit, a figure considered small when compared with other DDoS attacks.[75]
    Oregon Tea Party raid
    In July 2010, this was a reaction to the use of one of Anonymous' slogans by the Oregon Tea Party. The Party's Facebook page was flooded with image macro and flames. Within a few hours, the Tea Party posted a message saying "Anonymous: We appreciate your resources and admire your tactics. You have taught us more than you know. As requested, we are no longer using the 'anonymous' quote.". Following this raid, the Party's Facebook page was removed, and its Ning page limited to member-only access.[76]
    Operations Payback, Avenge Assange, and Bradical

    Anonymous releases their fliers and press releases to the public domain.
    Main article: Operation Payback
    In 2010, several Bollywood companies hired Aiplex Software to launch DDoS attacks on websites that did not respond to software takedown notices.[77] Piracy activists then created Operation Payback in September 2010 in retaliation.[77] The original plan was to attack Aiplex Software directly, but upon finding some hours before the planned DDoS that another individual had taken down the firm's website on their own, Operation Payback moved to launching attacks against the websites of copyright stringent organizations, law firms and other websites.[78] This grew into multiple DDoS attacks against anti-piracy groups and law firms.
    On April 2, 2011 Anonymous launched an attack on the media giant Sony, named #opsony, as a part of Operation Payback.[79] Anonymous claims the attack a success after they took down the PlayStation Network and other related PlayStation Websites. Anonymous' actions also included personal harassment of employees and their families. The PlayStation Network subsequently has had lengthy outages, although Anonymous claims that this is not due to any officially-sanctioned action on their part, but may be due to sub-groups of Anonymous.[80]
    Sony Corp. came to Anonymous' attention after it took legal action against George Hotz (a.k.a. GeoHot), the coder behind a popular tool that allows homebrew software to run on the PlayStation 3 (PS3). In addition, Sony is also taking legal action against Alexander Egorenkov (a.ka. Graf_Chokolo) for his efforts to restore Linux to the PS3. The reason why Hotz and Egorenkov do what they do follows on from Sony's decision to remove the system's OtherOS feature, which enabled the use of Linux. Hotz and Egorenkov's efforts to return the OtherOS feature are both a gift and a curse. While the pair has earned respect for their research and technical skills, they have also gained the attention of Sony's legal team. With a lawsuit now against Hotz this attracted the attention of Anonymous. They claim that Sony is breaching the free speech border, and this is the reason for their actions.[81]
    In December 2010, the document archive website WikiLeaks (used by whistleblowers) came under intense pressure to stop publishing secret United States diplomatic cables. In response, Anonymous announced its support for WikiLeaks,[82][83] and Operation Payback changed its focus to support WikiLeaks and launched DDoS attacks against Amazon, PayPal, MasterCard, Visa and the Swiss bank PostFinance, in retaliation for perceived anti-WikiLeaks behavior. This second front in the December offensive was performed under the codename Operation Avenge Assange.[84][85][86][87][88][89] Due to the attacks, both MasterCard and Visa's websites were brought down on December 8.[90][91] A threat researcher at PandaLabs said Anonymous also launched an attack which brought down the Swedish prosecutor's website when WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was arrested in London and refused bail in relation to extradition to Sweden.[92]
    After suspected leaker Bradley Manning was transferred to Marine Corps Brig, Quantico in July 2010, allegations of abuse arose around Manning's isolation in a maximum security area, and the suicide-watch he was put under which included constant verbal checks by guards and forced nudity.[93][94][95][96][97] Military officials denied the treatment was abuse or abnormal. In an event that lead to his resignation, State Department spokesman Philip J. Crowley made statements condemning the treatment.[98][99] In response to Manning's imprisonment and treatment, Anonymous threatened to disrupt activities at Quantico by cyber-attacking communications, exposing private information about personnel, and other harassment methods.[100][101] Dubbed "Operation Bradical",[102] Spokesperson Barrett Brown stated that this would be in direct response for the alleged mistreatment.[103][104] Military spokespersons have responded that the threat has been referred to law enforcement and counterterrorism officials and requested an investigation.[105][106]
    Operation Leakspin
    Main article: Operation Leakspin
    Operation Leakspin was conceived by the Anonymous group, with the purpose of sorting through recent WikiLeaks releases and raise awareness of potentially important and previously overlooked cables.
    Zimbabwe
    The websites of the government of Zimbabwe were targeted by Anonymous due to censorship of the WikiLeaks documents.[107]
    Activities during 2011

    A member holding an Anonymous flier at Occupy Wall Street, a protest that the group actively supported, September 17, 2011
    Attack on Fine Gael website
    The website for the Irish political party Fine Gael, a centre right party and currently in coalition government with the Labour Party, was hacked by Anonymous during the 2011 general election campaign according to TheJournal.ie.[108] The site was replaced with a page showing the Anonymous logo along with the words "Nothing is safe, you put your faith in this political party and they take no measures to protect you. They offer you free speech yet they censor your voice. WAKE UP! ".
    Arab Spring Activities
    Main articles: Operation Egypt and Operation Tunisia
    The websites of the government of Tunisia were targeted by Anonymous due to censorship of the WikiLeaks documents and the Tunisian Revolution.[109] Tunisians were reported to be assisting in these denial-of-service attacks launched by Anonymous.[110] Anonymous's role in the DDoS attacks on the Tunisian government's websites have led to an upsurge of internet activism among Tunisians against the government.[111] A figure associated with Anonymous released an online message denouncing the government clampdown on recent protests and posted it on the Tunisian government website.[112] Anonymous has named their attacks as "Operation Tunisia".[113] Anonymous successfully performed DDoS attacks on eight Tunisian government websites. The Tunisian government responded by making its websites inaccessible from outside Tunisia. Tunisian police also arrested online activists and bloggers within the country and questioned them on the attacks. Anonymous's website suffered a DDoS attack on January 5.[114]
    During the 2011 Egyptian revolution, Egyptian government websites, along with the website of the ruling National Democratic Party, were hacked into and taken offline by Anonymous. The sites remained offline until President Hosni Mubarak stepped down.[115]
    In response to the 2011 Libyan civil war, Anonymous hacked into Libyan government websites, and persuaded the host of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's personal website to take it down.
    Anonymous also released the names and passwords of the email addresses of Middle Eastern governmental officials, in support of the Arab Spring.[116] Countries targeted included officials from Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco.[117]
    In early August, Anonymous hacked the Syrian Defense Ministry website and replaced it with a vector image of the pre-Ba'athist flag, a symbol of the pro-democracy movement in the country, as well as a message supporting the 2011 Syrian uprising and calling on members of the Syrian Army to defect to protect protesters.[118]
    Attack on HBGary Federal
    See also: Wikileaks, Bank of America, Hunton & Williams, and Anonymous
    One man, who calls himself Owen, says his Anonymous colleagues broke into the company's servers. Hackers have a name for what they did. "They decided to just rape his servers and take all the information they wanted," he says. "Forgive that term ... 'Rape' is an Internet term, you know, as to go in and take everything out of somebody's server." Whatever the term, it was not a nice thing that Anonymous did to HBGary Federal. But now that the company's e-mails are out, it appears it was also willing to do some not-nice things.
    —E-Mails Hacked By 'Anonymous' Raise Concerns, NPR[119]
    On the weekend of February 5–6, 2011, Aaron Barr, the chief executive of the security firm HBGary Federal, announced that his firm had successfully infiltrated the Anonymous group, and although he would not hand over details to the police, he would reveal his findings at a later conference in San Francisco. In retaliation for Aaron Barr's claims, members of the group Anonymous hacked the website of HBGary Federal and replaced the welcome page with a message stating that Anonymous should not be messed with, and that the hacking of the website was necessary to defend itself. Using a variety of techniques, including social engineering and SQL injection,[120] Anonymous also went on to take control of the company's e-mail, dumping 68,000 e-mails from the system, erasing files, and taking down their phone system.[121] The leaked emails revealed the reports and company presentations of other companies in computer security such as Endgame systems who promise high quality offensive software, advertising "subscriptions of $2,500,000 per year for access to 0day exploits".[122]
    Among the documents exposed was a PowerPoint presentation entitled "The Wikileaks Threat", put together by HBGary Federal along with two other data intelligence firms for Bank of America in December.[123] Within the report, these firms created a list of important contributors to WikiLeaks; they further developed a strategic plan of attack against the site. As TechHerald explains, "the plan included pressing a journalist in order to disrupt his support of the organization, cyber attacks, disinformation, and other potential proactive tactics." The report specifically claims that Glenn Greenwald's support was key to WikiLeaks' ongoing survival.[124][125][126]
    Anonymous also personally attacked Aaron Barr by taking control of his Twitter account, posting Mr Barr's supposed home address and social security number.[127]
    In response to the attacks, founder of HBGary Federal, Greg Hoglund, responded to journalist Brian Krebs, "They didn't just pick on any company, we try to protect the US Government from hackers. They couldn't have chosen a worse company to pick on."[127] After the attacks, Anonymous continued to clog up HBGary Federal fax machines, and made threatening phone calls.[128]
    Purported threat against the Westboro Baptist Church

    WBC taunts Anonymous
    On February 16, 2011, the group supposedly[129] wrote an open letter to the Westboro Baptist Church, stating: "Cease & desist your protest campaign in the year 2011 ... close your public Web sites. Should you ignore this warning ... the propaganda & detestable doctrine that you promote will be eradicated; the damage incurred will be irreversible, and neither your institution nor your congregation will ever be able to fully recover."[130][131][132] On February 19, 2011, the church responded, telling Anonymous to "bring it on" and calling them, among other things, "a puddle of pimple-faced nerds."[133][134][135] Anonymous subsequently denied the authenticity of the threat,[129] suggesting that someone from outside Anonymous made the posting.[135][136][137] Due to their website being openly editable by anyone, it is unknown who made the post at this time. Anonymous responded with a press release calling the Westboro Church "professional trolls" stating that they believe that it was a member of the Westboro Church making an attempt to provoke an attack, thus acting as a honeypot which would both allow the church to retaliate against Internet service providers in court, and to gain it further publicity.[135][138] They also claimed that they had more pressing matters to attend to, namely the support of the 2011 Libyan protests.[139] That said, Anonymous later suggested tactics for those who wished to attack Westboro nevertheless, avoiding DDoS in favor of sending "prostitutes, preferably male," and in general to "rape their asses in the most unpredictable ways possible."[138]
    "Our best guess is that you heard about us on that newfangled TV of yours and thought we might be some good money for your little church."
    —Anonymous response to the Westboro issue[137]
    Anonymous also indicated that an attack would be self-defeating, stating: "When Anonymous says we support free speech, we mean it. We count Beatrice Hall among our Anonymous forebears: 'I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.'"[140] Nonetheless, Westboro's website at godhatesfags.com suffered an attack.[141][142][143] Another hacktivist by the name of Jester claimed to bring the websites from the Westboro Baptist Church on his Twitter account.[144][145][146] Nonetheless, people are still unsure who actually attacked the Westboro Baptist Church. In a forum in 4chan, several members revealed their confusion and wondered about Jester's motives.
    2011 Wisconsin protests
    See also: 2011 Wisconsin budget protests
    On February 27, 2011, Anonymous announced a new attack on Koch Industries[147] as a response to the Wisconsin protests. Between 1997 and 2008, David and Charles Koch collectively gave more than $17 million to groups, such as Americans for Prosperity, Club for Growth and Citizens United, lobbying against unions.[148][149] The Kochs are one of (Republican) Governor Walker's largest corporate supporters.[150] Anonymous accused the brothers of attempting "to usurp American Democracy" and called for a boycott of all Koch Industries products.[151][152]
    2011 Bank of America document release
    On March 14, 2011, the group Anonymous began releasing emails it said were obtained from Bank of America. According to the group, the files show evidence of "corruption and fraud", and relate to the issue of improper foreclosures. They say that the source is a former employee from Balboa Insurance, a firm which used to be owned by BofA.[153][154][155][156][157]
    Operation Sony
    See also: Sony Computer Entertainment America v. George Hotz
    Anonymous announced their intent to attack Sony websites in response to Sony's lawsuit against George Hotz and, specifically due to Sony's gaining access to the IP addresses of all the people who visited George Hotz' blog as part of the libel action, terming it an 'offensive against free speech and internet freedom'[158][159] Although Anonymous admitted responsibility to subsequent attacks on the Sony websites, Anonymous branch AnonOps denied that they were the cause behind a major outage of the Playstation Network in April 2011. However as Anonymous is a leaderless organisation, the possibility remains that another branch of the group is responsible for the outage.[160][161]
    Spanish Police
    On June 12, 2011, there was a DDoS attack on the website of the Spanish Police, starting at 21:30 GMT. Anonymous claimed responsibility the following day, stating that the attack was a "direct response to the Friday arrests of three individuals alleged to be associated with acts of cyber civil disobedience attributed to Anonymous." www.policia.es was down for approximately an hour as a result of their efforts.[162]
    Supporting 2011 Indian Anti-corruption movement in cyber space
    The group has come out in support of a civil movement against corruption in India. This cyber movement has been named as 'Operation India'.[163][164]
    Operation Malaysia
    On June 15, 2011, the group launched attacks on ninety-one websites of the Malaysian government in response to the blocking of websites like Wikileaks and The Pirate Bay within the country, which the group labels censorship of a basic human right to information.[165]
    Operation Orlando
    On June 20, 2011, members of the group took down the websites of the Orlando, Florida Chamber of Commerce and inserted a message into the website of the Universal Orlando Resort requesting that users "boycott Orlando". The group did so in response to the arrests of members of Food Not Bombs for feeding the homeless in Lake Eola Park against city ordinances.[166] The group had planned and announced the attack on their IRC channel.[167][168] The group has vowed to take a different Orlando-related website offline everyday, and have also targeted the re-election website of Orlando International Airport and of the Mayor of Orlando Buddy Dyer. A member of the group left a Guy Fawkes mask outside of the mayor's home; the police are treating the picture taken of the mask as a threat against the mayor.[169] On July 11, the group took down the website of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orlando and the Rotary Club of Orlando.[170]
    Operation Intifada
    On June 28, 2011, Anonymous announced that within the next 24 hours, it would hack into the website of the Knesset, the legislature of Israel, and knock it offline. It was stated that the planned attacks were a response to alleged hacking attacks by Israeli intelligence such the Stuxnet virus, a computer virus which allegedly was created by Israeli and U.S. intelligence and targeted the Iranian nuclear program.[171] However, the website was not knocked offline, suggesting that the attack was either blocked by Tehila, the Israeli governmental body responsible for securing government websites, or was never implemented.
    Operation Anti-Security
    Main article: Operation AntiSec
    The group has teamed up with LulzSec to hack the websites and release information from a large number of government and corporate sources.[172][173] As well as targeting American sites, Anonymous also targeted government sites in Tunisia, Anguilla, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Turkey, and Australia. On 21 July, Anonymous released two PDFs allegedly taken from NATO.
    Operation Facebook
    On August 2011, someone created an account on Twitter with the name OP_Facebook and announced the "Operation Facebook". According to the links on the post, Anonymous will take down Facebook on the fifth of November 2011.[174] The date "November 5" is believed to be attributed to the comics V for Vendetta, where the character "V" conducts his major plans every fifth of November. This operation isn't assuredly an Anonymous one. There was an earlier OpFacebook that was abandoned, and this current plan is a revival of the communication channels previously used.[175] The plan is contentious and does not appear to be supported by the majority of those who say they are part of Anonymous.[176]
    Operation BART
    In August 2011, in response to Bay Area Rapid Transit's shutdown of cell phone service in an attempt to disconnect protesters from assembling violently in response to a police shooting, Anonymous sent out a mass email/fax bomb to BART personnel and organized multiple mass physical protests at the network's Civic Center station.[177]
    Reception and impact

    This section requires expansion with:
    reactions to Anonymous including praise and criticism.
    Media coverage
    KTTV Fox 11 news report
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